Memorize and Rank: Elevating Large Language Models for Clinical Diagnosis Prediction

Mingyu Derek Ma, Xiaoxuan Wang, Yijia Xiao, Anthony Cuturrufo, Vijay S Nori, Eran Halperin, Wei Wang
Jun 13, 2024
Clinical diagnosis prediction models, when provided with a patient’s medical history, aim to detect potential diseases early, facilitating timely intervention and improving prognostic outcomes. However, the inherent scarcity of patient data and large disease candidate space often pose challenges in developing satisfactory models for this intricate task. The exploration of leveraging modern Large Language Models (LLMs) for encapsulating clinical decision processes has been limited. We introduce MERA, a clinical diagnosis prediction model that bridges pertaining natural language knowledge with medical practice. We apply hierarchical contrastive learning on a disease candidate ranking list to alleviate the large decision space issue. With concept memorization through fine-tuning, we bridge the natural language clinical knowledge with medical codes. Experimental results on MIMIC datasets show that MERA achieves the state-of-the-art for diagnosis prediction.
AAAI 2024 Spring Symposium on Clinical Foundation Models, Palo Alto, USA.